- The Spanish flu
The Spanish flu, also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus. Lasting from February 1918 to April 1920, it infected 500 million people – about a third of the world’s population at the time – in four successive waves. The death toll is typically estimated to have been somewhere between 20 million and 50 million, although estimates range from a conservative 17 million to a possible high of 100 million, making it one of the. First hit of the illnesses was from United States, the virus kill the very young ones and the old.
there were no active drugs or vaccines to treat this virus. Citizens were ordered to wear masks, schools, theaters and businesses were shut down and bodies piled up in makeshift morgues before the virus ended its deadly overall march. more U.S. soldiers died from the 1918 flu than were killed in battle during the war. 40% of the U.S. Navy was hit with the flu, while 36 % of the Army became ill, and troops moving around the world in crowded ships and trains helped to spread the virus.
The Spanish flu was not actually originated from spain, though news coverage of it did. During World War I, Spain was a neutral country with a free media that covered the outbreak from the start, first reporting on it in Madrid in late May of 1918. Meanwhile, Allied countries and the Central Powers had wartime censors who covered up news of the flu to keep morale high. Because Spanish news sources were the only ones reporting on the flu, many believed it originated there (the Spanish, meanwhile, believed the virus came from France and called it the “French Flu.”)
2. SMALL POX
The origin of smallpox is unknown. Smallpox was a destructive disease. On average, 3 out of every 10 people who got it died. Those who survived were usually left with scars, which were sometimes severe.One of the first methods for controlling the spread of smallpox was the use of variolation. Named after the virus that causes smallpox (variola virus), variolation is the process by which material from smallpox sores was given to people who had never had smallpox. This was done either by scratching the material into the arm or inhaling it through the nose. With both types of variolation, people usually went on to develop the symptoms associated with smallpox, such as fever and a rash. However, few people died from variolation than if they had acquired smallpox naturally.
The basis for vaccination began in 1796 when an English doctor named Edward Jenner observed that milkmaids who had gotten cowpox did not show any symptoms of smallpox after variolation. The first experiment to test this theory involved milkmaid Sarah Nelmes and James Phipps, the 9 year-old son of Jenner’s gardener. Dr. Jenner took material from a cowpox sore on Nelmes’ hand and inoculated it into Phipps’ arm. Months later, Jenner exposed Phipps a number of times to variola virus, but Phipps never developed smallpox. More experiments followed, and, in 1801, Jenner published his theory “On the Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation,” in which he summarized his discoveries and expressed hope that “the annihilation of the smallpox, the most dreadful scourge of the human species, must be the final result of this practice.”Almost two centuries after Jenner published his hope that vaccination could annihilate smallpox, on May 8, 1980, the 33rd World Health Assembly officially declared the world free of this disease. Eradication of smallpox is considered the biggest achievement in international public health.
In 2018, there were 37,832 people diagnosed with HIV in the U.S. and six dependent areas. While that’s down from 1995, the country’s ongoing failure to reduce the new infection rates suggest that little will change in the next decade.To that end, the U.S. has the unfortunate distinction of having the highest HIV incidence and prevalence of all developed, industrialized nations.
HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids that include:
- vaginal and rectal fluids
- breast milk
- The virus isn’t transferred in air or water, or through casual contact.
- Because HIV inserts itself into the DNA of cells, it’s a lifelong condition and currently there’s no drug that eliminates HIV from the body, although many scientists are working to find one.
- However, with medical care, including treatment called antiretroviral therapy, it’s possible to manage HIV and live with the virus for many years.
- Without treatment, a person with HIV is likely to develop a serious condition called the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, known as AIDS.
- At that point, the immune system is too weak to successfully respond against other diseases, infections, and conditions
- So alot of scientist are still on how to produce a cure for this strange virus